The absence of a polished, academic fini is a result of Manet’s decision not to consider étude, ébauche and fini as consecutive stage in the build-up of a painting. Either étude and fini were combined in a fini or étude and ébauche as a fini or ébauche and a fini were left ‘as they are’ and all three combinations were presented as a fini. In Manet’s view the painting was then ‘finished’. For reasons of clarity we separated the three main views as étude, ébauche and ébauche/fini

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